Cala d’Hort, Cap Llentrisca and Sa Talaia Natural Park

Cala d’Hort, Cap Llentrisca and Sa Talaia Natural Park was a protected natural area located in the municipality of Sant Josep on the island of Ibiza. It remains a coastal area with a wide variety of landscapes covering 2773.31 hectares (2208.81 land and 564.50 marine hectares). The closed bay of Cala d’Hort, the Cap Llentrisca cape and the Sa Talaia de Sant Josep peak constitute the highest area of ​​the island.

Among the main values ​​of the park are a large number of plant endemisms such as ginesta as well as important plantations of pines, garrigues, blackberries and oleanders. In the area there are also numerous colonies of nesting birds, among which the Eleonor’s falcon stands out. there are also endemic subspecies of lizards present on the islets.

Since its declaration as a protected natural area in February 2002 , the park has undergone several modifications in terms of its extension and protection. Both the Sa Talaia area, in 2003 , and the public estate of Ses Païses de Cala d’Hort, in 2005 have been removed and the park is currently reduced to just the islets and the marine environment. As a result of these changes the area is now called Es Vedrá, Es Vedranell and Islotes de Poniente Nature Reserve.

Es Vedrá, Es Vedranell and Islotes de Poniente Nature Reserve
Es Vedrá, Es Vedranell and Islotes de Poniente Nature Reserve

Es Vedrá, Es Vedranell and Islotes de Poniente Nature Reserve

The islets are clustered into two groups. The first is the group consisting of Es Vedrà and Es Vedranell, and the other takes in the Illots de Ponent, which include Sa Conillera, l’Illa des Bosc, S’Espartar and Ses Bledes: Na Gorra, Es Vaixell, Na Bosc, Na Plana and S’Escull d’en Ramon (reef).

The protected habitat accommodates aquatic birds, lizards and endemic invertebrates, as well as a very rich flora.

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Fauna

The islets are one of the main breeding grounds for aquatic birds and birds of prey including the Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii), the Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea), the Balearic shearwater (Puffinus mauretanicus), the Eleonora’s falcon (Falco eleonorae), the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the European storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus). As regards this last species, S’Espartar is home to one of the most important colonies in the western Mediterranean.

Invertebrates are also well represented here, and particularly molluscs, such as the snails of the Trochoidea genera, and coleoptera, or beetles.

The Eivissa wall lizard (Podarcis pityusensis), which is protected by different laws, boasts a number of endemic subspecies that vary in size and colour from one islet to the next.

The sea bottoms are well conserved and house a rich and diverse fauna represented by species such as the sea fans (Gorgonia sp.), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and fish species including the grouper (Epinephelus sp.).

Flora

The most common endemic plant species are Silene hifacensis, Diplotaxis ibicensis, Teucrium cossonii subsp. punicum, Asperula paui, Limonium pseudoebusitanum. Other species less common in the Pitiüses Islands can also be seen here, such as the European fan palm (Chamaerops humilis) and the tree spurge (Euphorbia dendroides). The esparto grass communities on S’Espartar are particularly important, as they are the most extensive communities in the Pitiüses Islands.

Also diverse are the underwater plants, which are primarily represented by the marine phanerogam beds, among which the endemic Mediterranean species Posidonia oceanica is particularly worthy of note.

Access is of course by boat and permits are required…. For visiting the area its best to ask at one of tourist information offices on the island of Ibiza

La Cúria is the main tourist information office

Plaça de la Catedral, s/n
Tel: +34 971 399 232
informacioturistica@eivissa.es

Opening hours

October to March:
Monday to Friday from 10am until 3 pm
Saturday, Sunday and public holidays: 10am until 2 pm

April, May, June and September:
Morning: Every day from 10am until 2 pm
Evening: Monday to Friday from 5 pm until 8 pm

July and August:
Morning: Every day from 10 am until 2 pm
Evening: Monday to Saturday from 6 pm until 9 pm


The Grazalema Guide

The best way to see all our web projects in one place is over at the Grazalema Guide.

The Grazalema Guide – Tourist Information Portal for the Sierra de Grazalema, Wildside Holidays, The town of Ronda and the Caminito del Rey.

http://grazalemaguide.com/

Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado

  • English: Ocellated Lizard
  • Spanish: Lagarto ocelado or Lagarto
  • Portuguese: Sardão
  • Family: Lacerta
  • Distribution: Iberia, southern and western France, noth west Italy
  • Classification: Formerly classified as Lacerta lepida and now a species of Timon, a genus of lizard sometimes regarded as a subgenus of Lacerta, both of which belong to the family of Lacertidae (the wall lizards). They are commonly referred to as “ocellated” due to the eyelike spots of colour on the body.
  • Timon lepidus lepidus – Most of Spain and Portugal. Present where the other sub-species are not present.
  • Timon lepidus ibericus – North-western Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) Their teeth are not arranged the same as the other sub-species, being more aligned and becoming larger and irregular towards the back of the mouth.
  • Timon lepidus nevadensis – South-Eastern Spain. They are duller in colour; their head also seems more pointed.
  • Timon lepidus oteroi Extreme North-Western Spain.
Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado
Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado

The ocellated lizard is the largest lizard resident in Europe growing to an adult size between 40 to 60 centimetres and sometimes reaching 90 centimetres. Generally, two thirds of the length is taken up by the thick tail. The legs, especially the hind legs, are muscular and strong, with long curved and sharp claws. The sides of the body are decorated with blue spots (especially during breeding season) and the back is a mixture of greens, browns, yellows and reds. The throat and belly, particularly of the males, are yellow. Adult males generally have more blue spots and always a larger, wider head.

Often though, you need to see both sexes at the same time to tell the difference between male and female. Females are generally smaller and sometimes have no blue spots at all. A long lived reptile they can live for as much as 25 years given a lot of luck and agility.

The species is found throughout almost all of Iberia, (plus Mediterranean France and southern Italy) and prefers habitats that are open to the sun, rocky scrub, olive plantations and grasslands. Juveniles seem especially at home close to dry river beds, lakes and water courses but adults seem to thrive in the driest of terrains. Territorial area is usually quite small and localised colonies can be made up of breeding adults, juveniles and young. When disturbed they will quickly run to the nearest cover or return to their burrow amongst tree roots or under a large rock.

Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado
Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado A female (I think!) emerging from her burrow.

Telling the difference between the sub species is very difficult but the geographical position will help. (See classification list at top). In reality only a capture and close inspection will reveal the true identification. Beware though as an adult can inflict a very painful bite which almost always festers and takes an age to heal!

Diet is very varied and made up of large insects, beetles and spiders, on occasion bird’s eggs, baby birds, small mammals, other lizards and small snakes. Fruits and berries will be eaten when available as well. Rabbit burrows are often occupied which of course means that a constant supply of young rabbit is available.

Breeding occurs in late spring and early summer, often accompanied by violent fights between males over territory and the right to mate with a female. Generally 5 to 12 eggs are laid between June and July in the ground and the incubation period is about 3 months. The young start to emerge during the month of September giving them only a few short weeks to find a food supply and a suitable safe place to hibernate through the winter.

Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado
Ocellated lizard (Timon lepidus ibericus(Lacerta lepida)) Lagarto ocelado Juvenile with the unmistakeable spotty body.

Hibernation takes place from October until March or April depending on seasonal temperatures

The Ocellated lizard is preyed upon by Eagles such as Short toed (aguila culebrera) Circaetus gallicus. Large snakes will take young and juveniles but a fully grown adult only has one real enemy, man, and although reasonable populations are present in Spain and Portugal there has been a substantial decline in many areas due to habitat loss and persecution by hunters that fear the lizard eats all of the partridge eggs and young rabbits.

In the past larger lizards were hunted and eaten as well. A lizard stew in garlic and tomato sauce may sound tasty but beware as the main ingredient is now a protected species!


The Grazalema Guide

The best way to see all our web projects in one place is over at the Grazalema Guide.

The Grazalema Guide – Tourist Information Portal for the Sierra de Grazalema, Wildside Holidays, The town of Ronda and the Caminito del Rey.

http://grazalemaguide.com/

Grass snake – Natrix natrix – Culebra de Collar

  • English: Grass snake.
  • Spanish: Culebra de Collar.
  • Nombre científico: (three species) Natrix natrix. (Linnaeus, 1758) – Natrix helvetica helvetica and Natrix astreptophora
  • Français: Couleuvre à collier.
  • Deutsch: Ringelnatter.
  • Italiano: Biscia dal collare.
  • Português: Cobra-de-água-de-colar.
  • Distribution: The grass snake is widely distributed in mainland Europe, ranging from mid Scandinavia to southern Italy. It is also found in the Middle East and northwestern Africa.

Non Venomous

The grass snake has a well defined broad head, round eye and pupil and the iris orange or red. Adults can reach about 130cm in length, though are usually 70-95cm. The most common color is brown or dark green, with small dark spots. The young have a yellowish white collar edged with black, which may disappear entirely in adults. An aquatic species, though less so than the Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) and seen less frequently.

The other forms of Grass snake in Spain

Natrix helvetica helvetica (In Spanish Culebra de Collar Europea) is found in the Pyrenees. The Barred Grass snake has a body colour of grey-green and distinct banding along its flanks for the entire length of its body. It can grow to a length of over a metre. It was included within the grass snake species, Natrix natrix, until August 2017, when genetic analysis led to its reclassification as a separate species.

The Mediterranean Grass Necklace Snake (or the Red-eyed grass snake) (Natrix astreptophora). Again recently seperated form the commong grass snake.

Identifying the differences in the three species in the field is near impossible unless you have excellent photographs are a long time to study the specimen…. I am happy to call it a grass snake… 🙂

Habits and habitat

Generally prefering shrubby locations near water. Can be found in meadows, hedgerows and woodland along the sides of rivers and other water bodies. they are mainly diurnal with crepuscular activity during the hot summer months.

Grass snake - Natrix natrix - Culebra de Collar1
Grass snake – Natrix natrix – Culebra de Collar

Feeding on amphibians, especially frogs, toads, their larvae and fish, grass snakes are strong swimmers and may be found close to rivers and streams. At distance and because they are in the water they are sometimes at first glanced confused with the viperine snake.

The mating period is April through June and a clutch of 12 to 28 eggs are laid 27 to 36 days after copulation. The eggs hatch after an incubation period of 42 to 71 days. Several females may lay eggs in the same place so sometimes a large number of juveniles can be seen in the same area. The young are about 18 centimetres long when they hatch and are immediately independent and self sufficient.

Similar species: The adults are similar to the Montpelier Snake (Malpolon monspeliensis) Note: The grass snake normally has an orange iris and the Montpelier snake has a yellow iris.


The Grazalema Guide

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Aesculapian Snake (Elaphe longissima or Zamenis longissimus) Culebra de esculapio

  • Non-Venomous
  • Scientific: Elaphe longissima (Laurenti, 1768) or Zamenis longissimus.
  • English: Aesculapian Snake.
  • Spanish: Culebra de Esculapio.
  • Basque: Eskulapioren sugea.
  • Catalan: Serp d’Esculapi.
  • Family: Colubridae.
  • Distribution: northeastern Spain (mainly areas in or bordering Pyrenees), northern and central France, southern Switzerland, northern and central Italy, western Sardinia, and practically entire Balkans and central eastern Europe from eastern Austria and Slovakia southwards and eastwards, as far as Moldova

The Aesculapian Snake is a species of Elaphe, a genus of snakes traditionally found in Eurasia, northern Africa and North America, although some authorities have now split the genus into smaller groups. Some also consider Elaphe longissima to be a species of Zamenis instead, but the traditional species name looks set to be around for a while yet.

A number of former subspecies of this snake are now considered full species in their own right but none of these occur in Spain.

The Aesculapian Snake was first described by Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti in 1768 as Natrix longissima, later it was also known as Coluber longissimus and for the most part of its history as Elaphe longissima. The current scientific name of the species based on revisions of the large genus Elaphe is Zamenis longissimus. Zamenis is from Greek word for angry, irritable or fierce. Longissimus comes from Latin and means “longest”; the snake is one of the longest over its range.

The common name of this snake arises from its association with the Greco-Roman god of healing, Aesculapius (Greek Asclepius), around whose temples in the ancient world the species was encouraged. The traditional sign of medicine even today is two snakes entwined around a staff.

(Aesculapian snakes are among those carried in procession in Italy in honour of Saint Dominic of Sora during the Festival of Saint Dominic Abbot (also known as the “Festival of the Serpari”) in the village of Cocullo, which takes place on the first Thursday of May. Nowadays after the festival the snakes are returned to their place of capture and released).

Description

This is a medium-sized colubrid snake with a total maximum length of about 200cm but averaging 140-160cm. Males are the larger of the sexes. The snout is somewhat flattened and the rostral scale does not protrude backwards between the two internasal scales. In coloration the adult Aesculapian Snake is less variable than many other species, being a light brown with small white dots. Although coloration is said to be more variable in general for this snake, one Spanish source describes only the light brown and fairly pattern-free coloration: however, darker or black (melanistic) individuals may occur, as do albino specimens. Some authorities also cite very subtle, slightly darker longitudinal lines that are harder to distinguish than those on the Ladder Snake. The belly is yellowish or whitish. The young are greyish brown with a row of dark spots on the back and a yellow area on either side of the head, giving them the appearance of small Grass Snakes (Natrix natrix), but unlike the latter, their scales are smooth rather than keeled.

E. longissima can be distinguished from Zamensis scalaris by its flatter snout, the rostral scale on the end of the snout which does not jut backwards between the internasals, and its rather calmer behaviour. The number of ventral and subcaudal scales on the Aesculapian Snake is also on average higher than on the Ladder Snake. The young of the two species are very easy to tell apart given the Ladder Snake’s juvenile patterning.

Scalation details

The rostral does not project between the internasals. There is one preocular (sometimes divided) and 2-3 postoculars and 8-9 supralabials, of which the 4th and 5th touch the eye. The temporals are arranged in a 2 x 3 or pattern. The dorsal scales are smooth and arranged in 23 (occasionally 21) rows at midbody. The ventral scales number 211-250 and there are 60-91 pairs of subcaudal scales.

Range and habitat

The range of this species is very large compared with many other European snakes, being found from Spain to the Caucasus. In Spain it is found in Santander, the Basque Country, Navarre, Huesca, Lérida, Barcelona and Gerona. In the Basque Country it lives in deciduous woods and meadows between pine woods and oak groves, while in Catalonia it can be found in beech and oak areas. Generally it likes the sun (in the northernmost parts of its range it is normally found on southerly-facing, exposed slopes) but avoids excessive heat, and in the south may be found in more humid places than elsewhere. Most of its habitats are dry and in addition to the usual places (dry stone walls, sunny woods, ruins, etc) may include paths and tracks (when sunning itself) and sometimes haystacks (perhaps due to the known propensity of haystacks to produce internal heat due to bacterial fermentation).

Habits and prey

The prey of the Aesculapian Snake is typical of that of most rat snakes, consisting of small mammals from mice and voles up to the size of squirrels, birds and lizards. The young normally start off with small lizards. It seems to have an unusually high metabolism for a snake, since in summer it may eat as frequently as every 3 days.

The Aesculapian Snake is normally a diurnal (active by day) and crepuscular (active at dawn/dusk) creature. It is less aggressive and more calm than the Ladder Snake, Elaphe [Rhinechis] scalaris, but this is relative: the Aesculapian Snake will still hold its ground, making chewing movements with its jaws, and will bite and/or empty its foul-smelling cloacal glands if further harassed. Its movements have been described as “deliberate”. Although not an arboreal snake it is a good climber of trees.

Breeding

courtship takes place in Iberia in May-June. In June-July a clutch of 5-15 (usually no more than 15) eggs is laid. These hatch in September. The young are about 23-25cm long on hatching. Unusually, the mother may remain with them for a few days. Males mature sexually at a length of about 50cm, females at a length of 65cm (the latter taking about five years). One authority quotes records of 25-30 years longevity.

In Spain the Aesculapian Snake takes its winter rest from October to March: elsewhere this period may last up to 6 months, depending on climate. The period of greatest activity is May to July.

The wide range of the Aesculapian Snake would appear to make it reasonably secure, and it is not listed in the IUCN “Red List” of Endangered Species. Threats to this snake would no doubt include those which apply generally to snakes, namely loss of habitat, pollution and natural predators such as birds of prey or mustelid mammals.

Thanks to wikipedia for the image at the top of this page…. (Above image by FelixReimann – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, )

If anyone has any images of this species and would like to publish them on this page I would be most grateful. 🙂


The Grazalema Guide

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Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) Culebra viperina

Non-Venomous and although the name suggest a viper, the viperine snake is not poisionous and like most snakes, avoids human contact when it can.

  • Scientific: Natrix maura.
  • Castilian: Culebra viperina.
  • Catalan: Serp d’aigua.
  • Portuguese: Cobra-de-água-viperina.
  • Family: Colubridae.
  • Distribution: Found in southwestern Europe and northwestern Africa. Portugal, Spain, France and northernwest Italy. Also found in African countries of Morocco, northern Algeria, northwestern Libya, and northern to central Tunisia.

This is a finely built snake that is most often seen in or near water. Usually they do not exceed 65-70cm in overall length, but occasionally can reach 90-100 cm with the female reaching the greater lengths.

Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) Culebra viperina 1
Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) Culebra viperina Often seen in streams and rivers.

The colours are generally yellow with a dark brown, sometimes checker board pattern, along the back and marks almost forming eye spots along the sides, regional variations occur. One variation is an overall dark colour with two pale stripes running parallel its full length.

The large, round pupils are set high on its head as it hunts mostly in the water, swimming slowly along the banks edge or through weeds with an ability to stay under water for up to 15 minutes. Their diet consists mostly of small fish, tadpoles and frogs. They can be found throughout Iberia and can survive to an altitude of 1,800m although are normally found below 1000m. The type of water body can vary from a well, a natural pool, a river to water deposits for irrigation. They can also tolerate salty water at river outlets.

Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) Culebra viperina 1
Viperine Snake (Natrix maura) Culebra viperina An adder like appearance but not a viper and not venomous.

Primarily diurnal during the spring and autumn months they can also be active on summer nights. From November to March (this can vary with temperatures) they will hibernate away from the waters edge hiding under a rock or log. On occasions they can be seen sunbathing on warmer days during this time of hibernation.

Breeding in the spring results in between 4 to 24 eggs (on average 6) being placed in June or July near the water in tree roots or under rocks. The eggs are white and measure around 30mm by 16mm. The incubation time is between 6 weeks and 3 months.


The Grazalema Guide

The best way to see all our web projects in one place is over at the Grazalema Guide.

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http://grazalemaguide.com/

Ladder Snake (Zamenis scalaris) Culebra de escalera

  • Non-Venomous
  • Scientific: Zamenis scalaris (Elaphe [Rhinechis] scalaris)
  • English: Ladder Snake
  • Spanish: Culebra de escalera
  • Basque: Escailera-suge
  • Catalan: Serp blanca
  • Portuguese: Cobra-de-escada
  • Family: Colubridae
  • Distribution: The geographic range of the ladder snake includes Portugal, Spain, southern France and a small area of Italy. They have also been identified in Menorca and the Iles d’Hyères off Provence. It is mostly absent from northern Iberia including much of the Pyrenees, Galicia although the species has been found on Ons Island, in the Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park, Cantabria and the Basque Country. (The population on Menorca may stem from an introduction by humans).

Description

The Ladder Snake, A species of Zamensis (Elaphe Rhinchensis), a genus of snakes traditionally found in Eurasia, northern Africa and North America has a confusing taxonomy. Authorities have now split the genus into smaller groups.

The Ladder Snake is a medium-sized colubrid snake with a total maximum length of about 160cm, but averaging 120cm. The snout is pointed, and the rostral scale projects sharply backwards between the two internasal scales. In coloration the adult Ladder Snake is less variable than many other species, being a shade of brown from yellowish to dark brown (most pictures seem to show the latter) and with a pair of darker longitudinal stripes running down the length of the body from the neck to the tip of the tail.

Ladder Snake (Zamenis scalaris) Culebra de escalera
Ladder Snake (Zamenis scalaris) Culebra de escalera (Juvenile showing “ladder” pattern on back. This changes to two dark paralel lines as they get older.

There is usually also a dark stripe running backwards from the rear of the eye to the angle of the jaw and subtle, occasional darker markings on the sides. The underside is silver-grey to whitish, sometimes with a few dark spots. The eye is dark brown to black. The young are more striking in appearance, being lighter and somewhat brighter in colour, yellow to light brown, with black transverse bars down the back that often join up at outside edges and form the characteristic “ladder” pattern. They also have many more prominent dark scales along the sides and on the head and the yellowish or whitish belly is marked with black that sometimes covers it in its entirety. With age these prominent patterns fade and the overall colour becomes darker, until the simpler adult pattern is left.

Habitat and habits

It is found in areas with plenty of bush cover, including vineyards, hedges and overgrown dry-stone walls and is common in Mediterranean woodland. Sunny and stony habitats are especially preferred. Although known from heights of up to 2,200m, the Ladder Snake is more usually found at 700m or lower.

In many ways the prey of the Ladder Snake is typical of that of most rat snakes. A study of Alicante populations showed that nearly three quarters of its prey was mammalian (including mice, rabbits and shrews), about a quarter arthropods (spiders, insects, etc) and the remainder birds. For the latter item the Ladder Snake will seek out nests with chicks or eggs in trees or on walls, being a fair climber. Lizards are also eaten. The young tend to start out with small lizards, nestling rodents and arthropods such as grasshoppers.

The Ladder Snake is normally a diurnal creature (active by day), but during the hottest part of the year may be more active at night, even after midnight, while in the spring it may be active at dawn or dusk. In terms of behaviour it is more like a whipsnake than a ratsnake, being more aggressive and defensive than most Elaphe species. Warning signs are hissing and lunging forward with the mouth open and attempts to pick up a Ladder Snake may be met by sharp bites and also the emptying of the glands around the cloaca, which apparently is quite offensive! This behaviour may also explain the greater mobility of the snake compared to some of its relatives: movements of 100m per day are known, and the average home territory of an individual is 4,500m2. Adults may sometimes be found in buildings hunting for rodents, something to be borne in mind if you have an old outhouse, barn or similar building on your property. Paradoxically this is one way that the Ladder Snake may be seen as beneficial to people. It does not normally shelter in such places, however, but tends to use rodent burrows, piles of stones or hollow trees.

Ladder Snake (Zamenis scalaris) Culebra de escalera
Ladder Snake (Zamenis scalaris) Culebra de escalera

Breeding

courtship takes place in Iberia in May-June, elsewhere possibly also in April, though not all females breed every year. Mating lasts for about an hour and 3-6 weeks later a clutch of 4-24 (usually no more than 15) eggs is laid. Incubation lasts 5-12 weeks. The colourful young are about 20cm long on hatching. Unusually, the mother may remain with them for a few days. Males mature sexually at a length of about 50cm, females at a length of 65cm (the latter taking about five years). One authority quotes records of 19 years longevity for both captive and wild individuals.

Populations in the south of Iberia are active all year round, but in cooler areas a winter rest of 4-5 months is usual. Hibernation is sometimes communal.

Scalation details

the rostral projects between the internasals. There is one preocular (sometimes divided) and 2-3 postoculars and 7-8 supralabials, of which the 4th and 5th or 5th and 6th touch the eye. The temporals are arranged in a 2 x 3 or 2 x 4 pattern. The dorsal scales are smooth and arranged in 25-31 (almost always however 27) rows at midbody. The ventral scales number 198-228 and there are 48-68 pairs of subcaudal scales.

Although reasonably common across its range, chemical pesticides in vineyards and other fruit-growing areas in the last century did cause damage to Ladder Snake populations. Among its predators are mustelid mammals (martens, ferrets etc), corvid birds (crows and relatives) and birds of prey.


The Grazalema Guide

The best way to see all our web projects in one place is over at the Grazalema Guide.

The Grazalema Guide – Tourist Information Portal for the Sierra de Grazalema, Wildside Holidays, The town of Ronda and the Caminito del Rey.

http://grazalemaguide.com/

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