Well, the Iberia Nature Forum continues to (re) grow and it’s great to see a few people taking some time away from the major social networks to add their input to a fully searchable forum (Where your posts don’t get lost) about the wildlife and natural history of Spain.
The photo above is of a black vulture with news appearing on various channels today of this species nesting in Aragón for the first time in 100 years….. 🙂
Such a shame to see that the diclofenac topic rears its ugly head again with the news that vultures are dying in Spain due to diclofenac poisoining. (Diclofenac was approved in Spain and other European nations in recent years because farmers, drug companies and regulators argued that cattle carcasses were disposed of differently in Europe than in India. This meant vultures would not be able to eat meat tainted with diclofenac.)…. https://iberianatureforum.com/forums/topic/diclofenacnsaids-and-the-threat-to-iberian-vultures/
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is the largest member of the grouse family and the heaviest-known specimen, recorded in captivity, had a weight of 7.2 kilograms (16 pounds). The species is found across Europe and the Palearctic, is primarily-ground-dwelling and is renowned for its elaborate courtship displays. (Males are also nearly twice the size of the females). The global population of Tetrao urogallus is listed as “least concern” under the IUCN.
There are, however, sad signs that some of the sub species are threatened, especially the Spanish Tetrao urogallus cantabricus – Cantabrian capercaillie – Urogallo cantábrico.
There are two sub species in Spain
Tetrao urogallus cantabricus (Cantabrian capercaillie) can be found in northwestern Spain
Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus can be found in the Pyrenees of Spain (and France)
Imminent extinction for the Cantabrian capercaillie
Having been declared in danger of extinction in 2018, the latest survey reveals that there are less than 300 individuals left in the Cantabrian mountains and very few of these are reproductive males. This brings the number below the minimum for a viable population for the survival of the subspecies which has already disapeared from Galicia and Cantabria. The remaining bulk of the surviving birds are located in León with a few also still present in Asturias.
The cause for the decline in numbers has various factors such as the impact of human activities, infrastructure, forest fires, illegal hunting, crashes with power lines and habitat fragmentation. Added to this, in breeding, a low birth rate and also a high mortality rate of hatchlings can be pointed out.
However, one must not forget that this species was hunted legally up to the 1980’s and then heavily poached pretty much up to present day. The male, due to his size was coveted by hunters and the results of this indiscriminate hunting are now plain to see.
Secrecy and mixed messages surrounds the Asturian captive breeding programme
As early as 2007, a captive breeding programme was set up in the Asturian locality of Sobrecobio but since that date very few Cantabrian capercaile have been released into the wild. Even volunteers from various ecological groups such as SEO/BIRDLIFE have been blocked from entering of finding out what the project entails and the methods being used. In 2020 records published showed that just 13 eggs were produced by the captive individuals with only 4 hatchlings that went on to die within the first weeks of life.
Something is obviously not right when one looks at the Scottish successes of captive breeding and re introduction and most people are pointing the finger at the bad management practices at the centre.
Un undated (maybe 2017?) report on the official website of the The Life + Cantabrian Grouse program publishes that 5 female birds were released into the wild with four dying quite quickly and the 5th losing transmitter signal so its fate is unknown. The overall message of the report is positive and no mention is made of the project failing either now or in the future. You can read the report in English here: https://lifeurogallo.es/en/content/results
The situation in Castilla y León
The news is slightly more positive in Castilla y León where there is a new recovery project being developed to adapt power lines in capercaille habitat and also there are plans for a new captive breeding center for in Valsemana (León). However, although announced at the beginning of 2021 the breeding centre still has not been created so time will tell what the fate of the Cantabrian capercaillie will be here.
Tetrao urogallus cantabricus – Cantabrian capercaillie – Urogallo cantábrico thrives in places where humans do not go and that can be demonstrated by the habitat where the species is more abundant across Europe. They really need the zero presence of humans, cattle and deer; the lack of forest or livestock tracks, other infrastructures and especially power lines.
One of the big debates has been whether or not to introduce males into the Cantabrian Mountains from the Pyrenees where there are more than 3,000 individuals at the last census ( in France the species is abundant and still classified as a hunt species). Of course if males of the other Spanish subspecies Tetrao urogallus aquitanicus are introduced, this will of course be another nail in the coffin for Tetrao urogallus cantabricus.
Strong criticism has also come from many sectors about the money spent in recent years on actions to try to recover the population of the species, especially in the Life + Cantabrian Grouse program where over 6 million euros has been invested. Without doubt full transparency and cooperation with experienced organisations will be needed if this project continues. Right now though, the future looks pretty bleak for the Cantabrian grouse.
There is an official video from the The Life + Cantabrian Grouse program official website but I always find it suspicious when comments are not enabled. I suppose they don’t want any negative comments posted. 🙂
One of the released birds was a rescue from a wild nest in the Catalan Pyrenees after one parent died and the remaining parent abandoned the nest.
The European cooperation for this re introduction project is impressive as this time the released birds originated from different facilities. One from Liberec Zoo (Czech Republic), one from Berlin Zoo, two from Tallinn Zoo (Estonia) and three from the Bearded Vulture Captive Breeding Centre of Guadalentín (Spain).
Ahead of the releases all the birds were fitted with identification rings and fitted with GPS transmitters
The released birds were named Brinzal, Fapas, Grefa, Quercus, Depana, Adenex, Panda and SEO after various Spanish conservation organisations that have contributed over the years to making Andalusia’s fauna one of the richest in Europe.
Great to hear that many of the sea turtle eggs that made the news earlier this year for being the first recorded nest of the season in the entire Western Mediterranean have hatched and entered the sea.
Since the discovery of the nest the site has had a 24 hour volunteer network taking care of it. Once the notice was received that the volunteers, who were guarding the nest, had seen the first turtles emerge, staff from the CRAM Foundation Clinic and Rescue Area team as well as Elena Abella from the University of Vic (Caretta a la Vista Project) and technicians from the Generalitat de Catalunya traveled to the area.
A total of 44 sea turtles emerged and 34 found their way to the sea whilst 10 were captured and transferred to the facilities of the CRAM Foundation where they will be part of a study project and reared in captivity until they reach the optimum weight for their reintroduction.
The next day the nest site was excavated and 38 undeveloped eggs were found along with one live turtle hatchling that was having difficulty exiting the egg due to a malformed body shell. This individual has also been transferred for hand rearing. 2 other hatchlings were found dead.
When the nest site was discovered earlier this summer 61 eggs were removed for artificial incubation and 30 were found to be fertile. These hatchlings will also be part of the reintroduction program.